Heinrich Isaac, also spelled Isaak (c. 1450–March 26, 1517) was a Netherlandish Renaissance composer of south Netherlandish origin who wrote masses, motets, songs (in French, German and Italian), and instrumental music. Little is known about Isaac’s early life. It is probable that he was born in Flanders, probably at Brabant. In his will Isaac called himself by the patronymic “Ugonis de Flandria”, meaning “Hugo’s [son] from Flanders.” Several variants exist of his name: Ysaac, Ysaak, Henricus, Arrigo d’Ugo, and Arrigo il Tedesco among them. (Tedesco means “Flemish” or “German” in Italian.) During the late 15th century, standards of music education in the region were excellent, and he was probably educated in his homeland, although the location is not known. Isaac’s career spanned well over thirty years and allowed him to travel far from his homeland of Flanders into Germany, Italy, and Austria, as well as other parts of central Europe. While the absence of plentiful primary sources makes it hard to map out Isaac’s life, piecing together the sources available along with the works he wrote gives a good picture of just how popular this Franco-Flemish composer was in his time.
Isaac was probably writing music by the 1470s, and the first document mentioning his name dates back to September 15, 1484, placing him in Innsbruck as a singer for Duke Sigismund of Austria, of the House of Habsburg. The following year Isaac migrated to Florence, since documents show that by July 1485 Isaac had become employed as a singer at the church Santa Maria del Fiore. By the middle of 1491, he was designated as a singer at Santissima Annunziata, a position that he held until 1493. Several documents illustrate Isaac’s long stay in Florence under the employment of Santa Maria del Fiore and Santissima Annunziata as a singer, and also suggest that he may have developed a close working-relationship with Lorenzo de’ Medici. It is speculated that it was Medici who may have summoned Isaac to Florence from Innsbruck in 1484. A pupil of Florentine organist Antonio Squarcialupi, he taught in the household of Lorenzo de’ Medici in Florence.
During his presence in Florence from 1484 until the end of 1496, Isaac probably composed several masses, motets, and secular songs, including missa “J’ay pris amours” and the carnival song “Hora è di Maggio”. In 1487 Isaac composed the piece “A la battaglia” to commemorate the battle between Genoa and Florence for the castle Sarzanello although there is much debate over the exact date and purpose of the piece. Isaac’s relationship with Lorenzo de’ Medici must have been fairly close, because allegedly between 1488 and 1489 he composed the music for a play called “San Giovanni e San Paolo”, written by Medici himself. Moreover, when Lorenzo died in April 1492 Isaac composed two motets in his memory. Lorenzo’s son Piero inherited everything he owned, including his musical groups. In September 1492 Piero took his musical groups to Rome to perform for the coronation of Pope Alexander VI. Records show that Isaac was one of the three singers for whom clothing was purchased for the trip, implying that he probably performed for the Pope.
During his first stay in Florence Isaac also had dealings with a Florentine named Piero Bello, whose daughter became Isaac’s wife. Although the actual date of the marriage is unknown, records imply that it may have been arranged for Isaac by Lorenzo de’ Medici when he summoned Isaac from Flanders. There is record of Piero Bello giving Isaac a dowry for his daughter Bartolomea in January 1495. In November 1496 after Isaac and his wife spent some time in Pisa, they moved to Vienna and became employed by Emperor Maximilian I. By the winter of 1496 Isaac and Bartolomea had gone from Pisa to Vienna to Innsbruck, and on April 3, 1497, Isaac was appointed court composer for Maximilian I. He remained under Maximilian’s employment from 1496 until his death, although he did not remain stationary during that period. In fact, Isaac traveled extensively around Europe north of Italy. Payment documents from Maximilian’s court imply Isaac traveled with the court to Torgau, Augsburg, Nürnberg, Wels, and back to Innsbruck between 1497 and 1501.
In 1502, Isaac returned to Italy, going to Florence to make arrangements with the hospital Santa Maria Nuova; payments were made to the hospital in return for health and food provisions. Recently discovered documents offer evidence that Isaac began making yearly payments to the confraternity of Santa Barbara for mutual assistance. On August 15,1502, Isaac wrote his first will. He then traveled to Ferrara to the Este court where he wrote the motet “La mi la sol la sol la mi” in merely two days and competed with Josquin for employment. Between 1505 and 1512 there are records of Isaac having dealings in Augsburg, Florence, and Constance, the latter in which he compiled his largest set of works: Choralis Constantinus. This monumental collection of mass propers was commissioned by the Constance cathedral on April 14,1508 and completed by Isaac and his student Ludwig Senfl by the winter of 1509. Isaac and Bartolomea were almost definitely back in Florence by this time since the completed Choralis Constantinus had to be mailed to the cathedral.
On January 4, 1512, Isaac bartered his house in Florence for a smaller one. He and his wife probably remained there except for a few short trips until his death. Isaac also made a point to revise his will on November 24, 1512. He was given an honorary position as chief of the polyphic chapel at Santa Maria del Fiore on 30 May 1514, which served as a pension. Isaac also continued to receive payments from the court of Maximilian I regardless of his living in Florence. In 1517, Pope Leo X made a visit to Florence, where he almost certainly would have heard Isaac’s music performed. Shortly before his death, Isaac wrote a third and final will. Isaac died on March 26, 1517 at Florence, Italy. Santissima Annunziata received payment the following day to hold his funeral.
Isaac was one of the most prolific composers of the time, producing an extraordinarily diverse output, including almost all the forms and styles current at the time; only Lassus, at the end of the 16th century, had a wider overall range. Music composed by Isaac included masses, motets, songs in French, German, and Italian, as well as instrumental music. Of his settings of the ordinary of the mass, 36 survive; others are believed to have been lost. Numerous individual movements of masses survive as well. But it is composition of music for the Proper of the Mass – the portion of the liturgy which changed on different days, unlike the ordinary, which remained constant – which gave him his greatest fame. The huge cycle of motets which he wrote for the mass Proper, the Choralis Constantinus, a huge anthology of over 450 chant-based polyphonic motets, and which he left incomplete at his death, would have supplied music for 100 separate days of the year.
Isaac’s best known work may be the lied Innsbruck, ich muss dich lassen, of which he made at least two versions. It is possible, however, that the melody itself is not by Isaac, and only the setting is original. The same melody was later used as the theme for the Lutheran chorale O Welt, ich muss dich lassen, which was the basis of works by Johann Sebastian Bach, including his St Matthew Passion. Isaac’s motets remain some of the finest examples of chant-based Renaissance polyphony in existence. The influence of Isaac was especially pronounced in Germany, due to the connection he maintained with the Habsburg court. While Josquin Desprez, a significant contemporary, is unquestionably the major figure of the middle Renaissance period, music of Heinrich Isaac stands out from this particularly rich period of musical composition.
The following works by Heinrich Isaac are contained in my collection:
Carmen in Fa.
Innsbruck Ich Muss Dich Lassen.
Suesser Vatter, Herre Gott.
material selected, adapted, and edited from several different sources